The overclocking a processor means that it is operated with a higher clock rate than intended. In principle, however, who threatened a processor overclocked the processor and other system components. It must always be expected that system components are damaged or destroyed. It is also demonstrably that the shortened life span of overclocked processors. But the motto "better safe than sorry" applies also to the manufacturers of processors, since they must also expect that their processors will work smoothly in computers that are available for example in overheated offices. Therefore, processors from home are not distributed with the full performance potential, but it still remains a sufficient amount of leeway, so that many processors can still tease out some of its performance. In plain language this means that some processors are underclocked, while all other conditions (room temperature, CPU coolers, etc.) are optimal.
Before we can start now, we must first know how the Mhz speed of a processor is made. Two factors determine the timing of the processor: the "front-side bus" (FSB) and the "multiplier". The FSB is colloquially the "heartbeat of the entire system" and all components are pending from the timing of the FSB. In order to arrive at the desired frequency, have the computer components such as processor, memory, PCI cards, etc. have a so-called multiplier or divider, is determined with the help of the clock frequency. And thus there are two ways to tickle out of his a little more processor power.
This table shows that the processor clock from the front-side bus is derived. FSB and multiplier yield the real processor clock. For example, an AMD Athlon K7 800 Mhz with a FSB of 100 MHz and a multiplier of 8 (100 MHz * 8 = 800 MHz). The same applies to the other hardware components. PCI cards (sound card, network card, TV card, etc) usually tolerate a default clock of 33 Mhz. To get at this clock speed, the FSB is not multiplied as in the processor with a fixed number, but divided. The so-called PCI divider and the FSB to determine the timing of PCI cards. Is operated in PC system with 100 MHz FSB, the PCI divider is 3 (100 MHz / 3 = 33.3 MHz). In summary we can say the front-side bus clock to maintain a computer system indicates. All other components depend on him. In order to determine a processor with a clock rate to operate, (either in the BIOS on the motherboard or the processor itself) set a multiplier. FSB and multiplier is now the real processor clock. The same goes for other PC components. Therefore, we overclocked the whole system if you lift the FSB.
Possibility - FSB via overclocking
The first possibility is to increase the front-side bus. With modern motherboards, you can easily change the FSB in the BIOS. For this you have when your computer starts, press "Del" or "Del" key. Then you have the category "Frequenzy / Voltage" (or something similar) find out where you can now increase the FSB. Can you make any changes to the FSB in the BIOS, so there is the possibility the FSB jumper (small, plug) on ??the motherboard change. This is especially true of older motherboards from the time of the Pentium and to K5/K6.
Important: If you use the BIOS its processor is overclocked, it will surely come at some point in the frontiers of the maximum overclockability. Since one does not know beforehand where is this limit, the processor must be in slow steps up to this point overclock. Has he then overclocked too far, then it is noticeable that the computer does not boot and the screen remains black. Now, however, do not panic if the jumper next to the motherboard battery out once and hersteckt, the default settings are loaded and the computer boots up again.
You can still catch a motherboard, in which neither the BIOS nor the FSB using jumpers to adjust, there is the possibility of increasing the clock with certain software programs. Especially when complete computers from Aldi or media market can often make settings on the processor clock, because these providers only use OEM supplies. And this is also clearly evident: If you prevent the possibility for overclocking, reduces the number of complaints and action due to exchange defective hardware.
When overclocking via the FSB should be a concern but that other components such as motherboard chipset, memory, PCI cards, etc will also be overclocked, as they are known by the FSB clock dependent. Therefore, when overclocking but not always, the processor is the culprit, if the computer in the overclocked state often crashes or does not start at, but also other components associated with the increased clock does not get along, often a problem case are dar. The probability is higher that memory, network card or motherboard chipset are to blame, as the processor. Overclockers with a Pentium system, the computer can only overclock the FSB sure that the memory and the chipset for higher specifications are appropriate. If you for example a P4 in his computer, which should, with an FSB (system clock) is powered by 400 MHz, its memory and the motherboard chipset suitable for a FSB of 533 Mhz. Then a successful overclocking is nothing in the way.
Possibility - Overclocking via Multipliplikator
The second option is to increase the multiplier. This is something the safe option to overclock a processor, since only the processor is overclocked. All other system components continue to run in their prescribed specifications. There are different ways to change the multiplier. This is dependent on processor type. The multiplier for older processors like the Intel Pentium 1 could still be easily changed by jumpers on the motherboard, which opened with an AMD Athlon chassis and resistors must be soldered. Some processors like the Pentium 4 can be no changes to the multiplier.
Power: Once we overclocked the processor, it usually needs a larger supply voltage, in plain text, it needs more juice. This supply voltage is called V-core. If you are overclocking the processor once pushed to the limits and the computer is no longer stable, and often helps to raise the core voltage (V core). With the increase of the V-core, there is a rule of thumb: An increase of 10% allows an increase of about 5-10% of the processor clock. But now there arises a greater heat processor, you can indeed reduce by corresponding cooler or even need, but it also makes for a shorter lifespan. The average life span is reduced by about 10-15 years dramatically. But what are the first 10-15 years in the life of a computer. These are centuries. Or are you still working as a 368er with 20 Mhz?
Just as with the FSB and the multiplier can be set either the V-core in the bios or via jumpers on the motherboard. If you have no possibility to change the core voltage, you have to change a rule and you have no chance of this to get the most out of its processor without increasing the V-core. On some motherboards, such as the ECS K7S5A for Socket A, there are specific instructions on how you can still change the V-core. Of course, one must also consider whether the power supply of the computer is powerful enough. Because if you highly overclocked the system, the power supply must have enough power to supply all the components with enough power. And because modern computer systems ranging from a 230 watt power supply is no longer there and has a 300 watt power supply (or more) ago.
"Stepping" of the processor:
Even with processors, there are quality differences, which in this case is called "Stepping". Processors are made from silicon wafers. In order to get faster and faster and higher clocked processors on the market, the engineers and technicians of the processor manufacturers are developing methods to improve the quality and the production of such silicon wafers. Therefore, the models of a single processor series differ in the quality of production, which is specified as stepping. The better this stepping is, the greater are the possibilities of a processor to overclock. Therefore you should make themselves knowledgeable before you buy a processor in some Internet forums that the stepping of a particular processor model is currently the best. Because often there are several different steppings of a single processor model.
Moreover, one should also make sure that you're making is not necessarily when the last model of a processor family, as this approach often come quite close to the limits of feasibility. Another factor is the method of production of the processor chips. The first Pentium 4 was still being manufactured with 0.18 micron wide transistors. His immediate successor was manufactured with 0.13 micron large transistors so that higher speeds were possible because the heat of production was lower due to the new than its predecessor. So you can have a Pentium 4 2000 MHz, on the one with the Willamette core and acquire the other with the more modern Northwood core, with the P4 Willamette can not be nearly as good overclock a comparable P4 with Northwood core.